Thomas M. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma. BMC Pulm Med. 2006;6 Suppl 1:S4.
Sazonov Kocevar V, Thomas 3rd J, Jonsson L, Valovirta E, Kristensen F, Yin DD, et al. Association between allergic rhinitis and hospital resource use among asthmatic children in Norway. Allergy. 2005;60(3):338–42.
Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A, et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN and AllerGen). Allergy. 2008;63 Suppl 86:8–160.
Bunyavanich S, Soto-Quiros ME, Avila L, Laskey D, Senter JM, Celedon JC. Risk factors for allergic rhinitis in Costa Rican children with asthma. Allergy. 2010;65(2):256–63.
Jacobs TS, Forno E, Brehm JM, Acosta-Perez E, Han YY, Blatter J, et al. Underdiagnosis of allergic rhinitis in underserved children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):737–9. e6.
Corren J, Manning BE, Thompson SF, Hennessy S, Strom BL. Rhinitis therapy and the prevention of hospital care for asthma: a case–control study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113(3):415–9.
Wallace DV, Dykewicz MS, Bernstein DI, Blessing-Moore J, Cox L, Khan DA, et al. The diagnosis and management of rhinitis: an updated practice parameter. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(2 Suppl):S1–84.
Meltzer EO, Blaiss MS, Derebery MJ, Mahr TA, Gordon BR, Sheth KK, et al. Burden of allergic rhinitis: results from the Pediatric Allergies in America survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(3 Suppl):S43–70.
Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Halonen M, Morgan W, Taussig LM. Epidemiology of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in childhood. Pediatrics. 1994;94(6 Pt 1):895–901.
From the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2015. Available from: http://www.ginasthma.org/. Accessed September 4, 2015.
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma-Summary Report 2007. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(5 Suppl):S94–138.
Wheatley LM, Togias A. Clinical practice. Allergic rhinitis. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(5):456–63.
Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N. Aria Workshop Group, World Health Organization. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(5 Suppl):S147–334.
Bunyavanich S. Allergic Rhinitis. In: Sampson HA, editor. Mount Sinai Series-Allergy & Clinical Immunology. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015. p. 35–43
Esteban CA, Klein RB, Kopel SJ, McQuaid EL, Fritz GK, Seifer R, et al. Underdiagnosed and Undertreated Allergic Rhinitis in Urban School-Aged Children with Asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 2014;27(2):75–81.
Dennis RJ, Caraballo L, Garcia E, Rojas MX, Rondon MA, Perez A, et al. Prevalence of asthma and other allergic conditions in Colombia 2009–2010: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pulm Med. 2012;12:17.
Nolte H, Nepper-Christensen S, Backer V. Unawareness and undertreatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis in a general population. Respir Med. 2006;100(2):354–62.
Bauchau V, Durham SR. Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe. Eur Respir J. 2004;24(5):758–64.
Bagenstose SE, Bernstein JA. Treatment of chronic rhinitis by an allergy specialist improves quality of life outcomes. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999;83(6 Pt 1):524–8.
Harmsen L, Nolte H, Backer V. The effect of generalist and specialist care on quality of life in asthma patients with and without allergic rhinitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152(3):288–94.
Pedersen PA, Weeke ER. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in the same patients. Allergy. 1983;38(1):25–9.
Leynaert B, Neukirch F, Demoly P, Bousquet J. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and rhinitis comorbidity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(5 Suppl):S201–5.
Shaaban R, Zureik M, Soussan D, Neukirch C, Heinrich J, Sunyer J, et al. Rhinitis and onset of asthma: a longitudinal population-based study. Lancet. 2008;372(9643):1049–57.
Rochat MK, Illi S, Ege MJ, Lau S, Keil T, Wahn U, et al. Allergic rhinitis as a predictor for wheezing onset in school-aged children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6):1170–5. e2.
Guerra S, Sherrill DL, Martinez FD, Barbee RA. Rhinitis as an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109(3):419–25.
Toren K, Olin AC, Hellgren J, Hermansson BA. Rhinitis increase the risk for adult-onset asthma--a Swedish population-based case–control study (MAP-study). Respir Med. 2002;96(8):635–41.
Burgess JA, Walters EH, Byrnes GB, Matheson MC, Jenkins MA, Wharton CL, et al. Childhood allergic rhinitis predicts asthma incidence and persistence to middle age: a longitudinal study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(4):863–9.
Morais-Almeida M, Gaspar A, Pires G, Prates S, Rosado-Pinto J. Risk factors for asthma symptoms at school age: an 8-year prospective study. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2007;28(2):183–9.
Bousquet J, Gaugris S, Kocevar VS, Zhang Q, Yin DD, Polos PG, et al. Increased risk of asthma attacks and emergency visits among asthma patients with allergic rhinitis: a subgroup analysis of the investigation of montelukast as a partner agent for complementary therapy [corrected. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35(6):723–7.
Bousquet J, Annesi-Maesano I, Carat F, Leger D, Rugina M, Pribil C, et al. Characteristics of intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis: DREAMS study group. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35(6):728–32.
Ponte EV, Franco R, Nascimento HF, Souza-Machado A, Cunha S, Barreto ML, et al. Lack of control of severe asthma is associated with co-existence of moderate-to-severe rhinitis. Allergy. 2008;63(5):564–9.
Sasaki M, Yoshida K, Adachi Y, Furukawa M, Itazawa T, Odajima H, et al. Factors associated with asthma control in children: findings from a national Web-based survey. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25(8):804–9.
Antonicelli L, Micucci C, Voltolini S, Feliziani V, Senna GE, Di Blasi P, et al. Allergic rhinitis and asthma comorbidity: ARIA classification of rhinitis does not correlate with the prevalence of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37(6):954–60.
Antonicelli L, Micucci C, Voltolini S, Senna GE, Di Blasi P, Visona G, et al. Relationship between ARIA classification and drug treatment in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergy. 2007;62(9):1064–70.
Grossman J. One airway, one disease. Chest. 1997;111(2 Suppl):11S–6.
Salo PM, Arbes Jr SJ, Jaramillo R, Calatroni A, Weir CH, Sever ML, et al. Prevalence of allergic sensitization in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(2):350–9.
Lau S, Illi S, Sommerfeld C, Niggemann B, Bergmann R, von Mutius E, et al. Early exposure to house-dust mite and cat allergens and development of childhood asthma: a cohort study. Multicentre Allergy Study Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9239):1392–7.
Illi S, von Mutius E, Lau S, Niggemann B, Gruber C, Wahn U, et al. Perennial allergen sensitisation early in life and chronic asthma in children: a birth cohort study. Lancet. 2006;368(9537):763–70.
Carlsten C, Dimich-Ward H, Becker AB, Ferguson A, Chan HW, DyBuncio A, et al. Indoor allergen exposure, sensitization, and development of asthma in a high-risk birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(4 Pt 2):e740–6.
Stoltz DJ, Jackson DJ, Evans MD, Gangnon RE, Tisler CJ, Gern JE, et al. Specific patterns of allergic sensitization in early childhood and asthma & rhinitis risk. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43(2):233–41.
Nelson HS. The importance of allergens in the development of asthma and the persistence of symptoms. Dis Mon. 2001;47(1):5–15.
Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston BM, Erzurum SC, Teague WG. National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program. Features of severe asthma in school-age children: Atopy and increased exhaled nitric oxide. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(6):1218–25.
Schatz M, Rosenwasser L. The allergic asthma phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(6):645–8. quiz 649.
Corren J. The connection between allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2007;13(1):13–8.
Leynaert B, Bousquet J, Henry C, Liard R, Neukirch F. Is bronchial hyperresponsiveness more frequent in women than in men? A population-based study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(5):1413–20.
Riccioni G, Della Vecchia R, Castronuovo M, Di Pietro V, Spoltore R, De Benedictis M, et al. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with seasonal and perennial rhinitis: is there a link for asthma and rhinitis? Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2002;15(1):69–74.
Ciprandi G, Ricciardolo FL, Schiavetti I, Cirillo I. Allergic rhinitis phenotypes based on bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2014;28(6):214–8.
Ciprandi G, Cirillo I, Tosca MA, Vizzaccaro A. Bronchial hyperreactivity and spirometric impairment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Respir Med. 2004;98(9):826–31.
Dixon AE, Kaminsky DA, Holbrook JT, Wise RA, Shade DM, Irvin CG. Allergic rhinitis and sinusitis in asthma: differential effects on symptoms and pulmonary function. Chest. 2006;130(2):429–35.
Price D, Zhang Q, Kocevar VS, Yin DD, Thomas M. Effect of a concomitant diagnosis of allergic rhinitis on asthma-related health care use by adults. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35(3):282–7.
Halpern MT, Schmier JK, Richner R, Guo C, Togias A. Allergic rhinitis: a potential cause of increased asthma medication use, costs, and morbidity. J Asthma. 2004;41(1):117–26.
Lodrup Carlsen KC, Soderstrom L, Mowinckel P, Haland G, Pettersen M, Munthe Kaas MC, et al. Asthma prediction in school children; the value of combined IgE-antibodies and obstructive airways disease severity score. Allergy. 2010;65(9):1134–40.
Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD. A clinical index to define risk of asthma in young children with recurrent wheezing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(4 Pt 1):1403–6.
Bousquet J, Gern JE, Martinez FD, Anto JM, Johnson CC, Holt PG, et al. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: report of a NIAID/NHLBI/MeDALL joint workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(6):1535–46.
Crystal-Peters J, Neslusan C, Crown WH, Torres A. Treating allergic rhinitis in patients with comorbid asthma: the risk of asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109(1):57–62.
Adams RJ, Fuhlbrigge AL, Finkelstein JA, Weiss ST. Intranasal steroids and the risk of emergency department visits for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109(4):636–42.
Suissa S, Ernst P. Bias in observational study of the effectiveness of nasal corticosteroids in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115(4):714–9.
Philip G, Nayak AS, Berger WE, Leynadier F, Vrijens F, Dass SB, et al. The effect of montelukast on rhinitis symptoms in patients with asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20(10):1549–58.
Busse WW, Casale TB, Dykewicz MS, Meltzer EO, Bird SR, Hustad CM, et al. Efficacy of montelukast during the allergy season in patients with chronic asthma and seasonal aeroallergen sensitivity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(1):60–8.
Doherty GM. Is montelukast effective and well tolerated in the management of asthma in young children?: Part A: Evidence-based answer and summary. Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(4):307–8.
Brozek JL, Bousquet J, Baena-Cagnani CE, Bonini S, Canonica GW, Casale TB, et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines: 2010 revision. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(3):466–76.
Gotzsche PC, Johansen HK. House dust mite control measures for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD001187. doi:10.1002/14651858.
Platts-Mills TA. Allergen avoidance in the treatment of asthma: problems with the meta-analyses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(4):694–6.
White P, Smith H, Baker N, Davis W, Frew A. Symptom control in patients with hay fever in UK general practice: how well are we doing and is there a need for allergen immunotherapy? Clin Exp Allergy. 1998;28(3):266–70.
1. US Food and Drug Administration approval notification: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Allergenics/UCM391580.pdf. Accessed September 4, 2015.
Chipps B, Spector S, Farrar J, Carr W, Meltzer E, Storms W, et al. Differences in recommendations between the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma Update 2010 and US Rhinitis Practice Parameters. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(6):1640–1. e1; author reply 1643–5.
Roberts G, Hurley C, Turcanu V, Lack G. Grass pollen immunotherapy as an effective therapy for childhood seasonal allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(2):263–8.
Erekosima N, Suarez-Cuervo C, Ramanathan M, Kim JM, Chelladurai Y, Segal JB, et al. Effectiveness of subcutaneous immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: a systematic review. Laryngoscope. 2014;124(3):616–27.
Lin SY, Erekosima N, Kim JM, Ramanathan M, Suarez-Cuervo C, Chelladurai Y, et al. Sublingual immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: a systematic review. JAMA. 2013;309(12):1278–88.
Abramson MJ, Puy RM, Weiner JM. Injection allergen immunotherapy for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Aug 4;(8):CD001186. doi:10.1002/14651858.
Chelladurai Y, Suarez-Cuervo C, Erekosima N, Kim JM, Ramanathan M, Segal JB, et al. Effectiveness of subcutaneous versus sublingual immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(4):361–9.
Des Roches A, Paradis L, Menardo JL, Bouges S, Daures JP, Bousquet J. Immunotherapy with a standardized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract. VI. Specific immunotherapy prevents the onset of new sensitizations in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99(4):450–3.
Marogna M, Spadolini I, Massolo A, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G. Randomized controlled open study of sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergy in real-life: clinical efficacy and more. Allergy. 2004;59(11):1205–10.
Pajno GB, Barberio G, De Luca F, Morabito L, Parmiani S. Prevention of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mite by specific immunotherapy. A six-year follow-up study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31(9):1392–7.
Johnstone DE. Immunotherapy in children: past, present, and future. (Part I). Ann Allergy. 1981;46(1):1–7.
Moller C, Dreborg S, Ferdousi HA, Halken S, Host A, Jacobsen L, et al. Pollen immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (the PAT-study). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;109(2):251–6.
Niggemann B, Jacobsen L, Dreborg S, Ferdousi HA, Halken S, Host A, et al. Five-year follow-up on the PAT study: specific immunotherapy and long-term prevention of asthma in children. Allergy. 2006;61(7):855–9.
Novembre E, Galli E, Landi F, Caffarelli C, Pifferi M, De Marco E, et al. Coseasonal sublingual immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(4):851–7.