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Table 2 Difference in diet and nutrition patterns and lifestyle in asthma and healthy controls

From: A nationwide study of asthma correlates among adolescents in Saudi Arabia

  All Non-asthmatic Asthmatic  
(n = 11,348) % (n = 10,412) % (n = 936) % p-value
Regular number of main meals per day 9127 (81.3) 8388 (81.4) 739 (79.9) 0.25
Regular number of snacks per day 9489 (84.5) 8711 (84.6) 778 (83.6) 0.42
Fruits and vegetables intake (> 5 servings) 1241 (11.0%) 1123 (10.8) 118 (12.7) 0.08
Frequentb Soft drinks intake 6648 (59.1) 6063 (58.7) 585 (63.0) 0.01
Frequentb Power drinks intake 2400 (21.3) 2155 (20.9) 245 (26.4) < 0.001
Number of milk drinks per day 0 6136 (54.9) 5668 (55.3) 468 (50.6) 0.02
1–2 4379 (39.2) 3986 (38.9) 393 (42.5)
>  2 662 (5.9) 598 (5.8) 64 (6.9)
Fast food intake more than twice in the past 7 days 3490 (31.3) 3180 (31.1) 310 (33.6) 0.11
Exercise for 30 minutes in the last 7 days < 3 8021 (71.8) 7368 (71.9) 653 (70.6) 0.40
≥3 3154 (28.2) 2882 (28.1) 272 (29.4)
Sleeping patterns Oftena feels refreshed upon awakening in the morning 2723 (24.5) 2518 (24.7) 205 (22.2) 0.09
Age of onset of cigarette smoking (years) Never 9233 (82.9) 8512 (83.4) 721 (77.7) < 0.001
Less than 12 797 (7.2) 717 (7.0) 80 (8.6)
Between 12 and 18 1106 (9.9) 979 (9.6) 127 (13.7)
Cigarette smoking in the last 30 days   711 (6.4) 637 (6.2) 74 (8.0) 0.04
Video game use > 2 hours daily   1510 (13.4) 1341 (13.0) 169 (18.1) < 0.001
Mobile phone use > 30 minutes daily   2394 (26.0) 2180 (25.9) 214 (27.8) 0.24
Academic performance during preceding school semester: above average   10,497 (95.6) 9647 (95.8) 850 (93.7) 0.004
Frequenta school absenteeism   3302 (29.6) 3009 (29.4) 293 (31.7) 0.14
Reason for school absenteeism Was never absent 2292 (20.4) 2156 (20.9) 136 (14.6) < 0.001
Sickness or doctor's appointment 5442 (48.4) 4885 (47.4) 557 (59.7)
Didn’t want to come 3510 (31.2) 3270 (31.7) 240 (25.7)
  1. a: most of the times or always
  2. b: daily and more than once