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Table 2 Comparison of participant characteristics among children by study community

From: Associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and prevalent asthma among children living in communities with differing levels of urbanization: a cross-sectional study

  Pampas Villa p-value
Sample size 419 465
Asthma status, n (%) 258 (40.8) 248 (45.5) 0.11
Vitamin D Measures
 Total 25(OH)D (ng/ml), mean (SD) 20.9 (13.1) 30.0 (9.4) <0.001
Demographics
 Age in years, mean (SD) 14.5 (2.69) 13.4 (2.62) <0.001
 n, (%) boys 341 (54.0) 280 (51.4) 0.21
Anthropometry
 Height in cm, mean (SD) 151 (12.2) 151 (11.8) 0.74
 BMI in kg/m2, mean (SD) 21.8 (3.75) 22.1 (4.48) 0.34
 BMI-for-age z-score, mean (SD) 0.840 (1.1) 1.00 (1.22) 0.04
Socioeconomics, n (%)
 Maternal education ≥ 6 years 210 (52.9) 333 (76.7) <0.001
 6 or more household members 191 (47.8) 241 (55.0) 0.04
 SES Score −0.684 (1.57) 0.793 (1.45) <0.001
Smoking
 Current smoker 11 (3.06) 5 (1.23) 0.08
Pulmonary function, allergy, FeNO
 Pre-BD FEV1 z-score, mean (SD) 1.36 (1.27) 1.31 (1.31) 0.57
 Pre-BD FVC z-score, mean (SD) 1.44 (1.26) 1.28 (1.34) 0.07
 Pre-BD FEV1/FVC z-score, mean (SD) −0.0296 (1.09) 0.129 (1.06) 0.03
 Either parent with history of physician-diagnosed asthma, n (%) 69 (17.9) 77 (18.0) 0.95
 Atopy, n (%) 293 (71.3) 310 (68.3) 0.34
 Pollen allergy (self-report), n (%) 27 (6.94) 22 (5.02) 0.24
 Animal dander allergy (self-report), n (%) 71 (17.9) 66 (15.1) 0.27
 Ever having allergic rhinitis (self-report), n (%) 229 (57.5) 233 (53.2) 0.21
 Either parent with history of allergic rhinitis (self-report), n (%) 98 (25.3) 114 (26.6) 0.68
 Ever having eczema (self-report), n (%) 56 (14.1) 25 (5.71) <0.001
 Either parent with history of eczema (self-report), n (%) 18 (4.63) 7 (1.64) 0.01
 Exhaled nitric oxide in ppb, mean(SD) 29.6 (30.8) 23.2 (24.6) 0.001
Calendar quarter at time of blood draw, n, (%)
 January–March 0 191 (41.1) <0.001
 April–June 0 22 (4.73)
 July–September 77 (18.4) 0
 October–December 342 (81.6) 252 (54.2)
Mean daily frequency of vitamin D-rich food intake in 14 days prior to blood draw, mean (SD); n = 646
 Vitamin-D rich oily fish 0.12 (0.16) 0.14 (0.16) 0.04
 Vitamin-D fortified milk 0.51 (0.46) 0.59 (0.66) 0.04