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Table 1 Participant characteristics among children with and without asthma

From: Associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and prevalent asthma among children living in communities with differing levels of urbanization: a cross-sectional study

  Children with Asthma Children without asthma p-value
Sample size 413 471
Lives in Pampas de San Juan, n (%) 374 (55.7) 258 (51.0) 0.11
Vitamin D Measures
 Total 25(OH)D (ng/ml), mean (SD) 25.2 (10.1) 26.1 (13.7) 0.28
Demographics
 Age in years, mean (SD) 13.9 (2.65) 14.0 (2.77) 0.43
 n, (%) boys 234 (56.7) 238 (50.5) 0.07
Anthropometry
 Height in cm, mean (SD) 150.9 (12.0) 151.0 (12.0) 0.99
 BMI in kg/m2, mean (SD) 22.2 (4.23) 21.7 (4.07) 0.03
 BMI-for-age z-score, mean (SD) 1.03 (1.2) 0.83 (1.1) 0.01
Socioeconomics, n (%)
 Maternal education ≥ 6 years 274 (71.0) 269 (60.5) 0.001
 6 or more household members 200 (51.6) 232 (51.6) 0.99
 SES Score 0.243 (1.68) −0.183 (1.66) <0.001
Smoking
 Current smoker 6 (1.8) 10 (2.4) 0.56
Pulmonary function, allergy, FeNO
 Pre-BD FEV1 z-score, mean (SD) 1.08 (1.40) 1.55 (1.16) <0.001
 Pre-BD FVC z-score, mean (SD) 1.48 (1.41) 1.34 (1.21) 0.69
 Pre-BD FEV1/FVC z-score, mean (SD) −0.355 (−1.16) 0.413 (0.837) <0.001
 Either parent with history of physician-diagnosed asthma, n (%) 98 (25.7) 48 (11.1) <0.001
 Atopy, n (%) 488 (62.3) 315 (78.2) <0.001
 Pollen allergy (self-report), n (%) 38 (9.79) 11 (2.51) <0.001
 Animal dander allergy (self-report), n (%) 107 (27.6) 30 (6.73) <0.001
 Ever having allergic rhinitis (self-report), n (%) 291 (75.2) 171 (38.0) <0.001
 Either parent with history of allergic rhinitis (self-report), n (%) 124 (32.6) 88 (20.2) <0.001
 Ever having eczema (self-report), n (%) 53 (13.7) 28 (6.25) <0.001
 Either parent with history of eczema (self-report), n (%) 12 (3.15) 13 (3.00) 0.90
 Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in ppb, mean(SD) 34.3 (32.9) 20.0 (21.4) <0.001
Calendar quarter at time of blood draw, n, (%)
 January–March 102 (24.7) 89 (18.9) <0.001
 April–June 13 (3.15) 9 (1.91)
 July–September 73 (17.7) 4 (0.85)
 October–December 225 (54.5) 369 (78.3)
Mean daily frequency of vitamin D-rich food intake in 14 days prior to blood draw, mean (SD), n = 646
 Vitamin-D rich oily fish 0.13 (0.15) 0.13 (0.16) 0.89
 Vitamin-D fortified milk 0.55 (0.54) 0.54 (0.62) 0.77