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Table 1 Some characteristics of asthma in the elderly

From: Asthma in the elderly patient

Epidemiological Increased morbidity and mortality
Less frequent atopy
Clinical Underdiagnosed and undertreated
Asthma control more difficult to achieve
Reduced perception of symptoms
Difficulties to perform pulmonary function tests
Numerous co-morbidities
Pathophysiology Mixed (more neutrophilic airway inflammation)
More severe airway obstruction
Loss of lung elastic recoil – reduced respiratory muscles strength- small airways involvement
Systemic inflammation and immunosenescence
Management problems Insufficient understanding of the disease
Memory impairment, hearing loss, poor sight
Psycho-socio-economic problems
Therapy Poor adhesion to therapy and follow-up
Poor inhaler technique (arthritis, understanding…)
Polypharmacy and increased risk of interactions
General Poor nutrition, sedentarity, weight gain
Reduced access to care