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Table 2 Summary of studies addressing prevalence and clinical correlates of airway hyperresponsiveness in children and adults with SCD

From: Sickle cell disease: wheeze or asthma?

Study (year) Study design Ages Prevalence of AHR Clinical Correlates of AHR
Leong et al. (1997) [34] Cold air challenge in 32 children with SCD 6–19 years 67 % with 10 % drop in FEV1 No difference in prevalence of AHR to cold air between SCD patients with and without asthma;
Sylvester et al. (2007) [33] Cold air challenge in 42 children with HbSS 6–16 years 14 % with 10 % drop in FEV1 No association between prior history of ACS and likelihood of having a positive cold air challenge test
Strunk et al. (2008) [35] MCT in 21 clinically referred children with SCD and respiratory symptoms 5–18 years 67 % with PC20 < 12.5 mg/ml Not evaluated
Ozbek et al. (2007) [36] MCT in 31 children 6–16 years 77 % with PC20 < 16 mg/ml, 58 % with PC20 < 1 mg/ml No differences in PC20 between those with and without history of ACS (p = 0.06)
Field et al. (2011) [40] MCT in 99 children with HbSS or HbSβ0   55 % with PC20 < 4 mg/ml Methacholine DRS not associated with STR, BDR, peripheral blood eosinophil count, or asthma diagnosis; DRS was associated with serum IgE and LDH
Chaudry et al. (2014) [41] Cohort study 50 children with SCD and 50 non-SCD controls, 93 completed MCT 10–18 years Prevalence of PC20 below a specified threshold not reported; No difference in DRS between those DRS higher in children with asthma in both groups; No differences in DRS between HbSS and HbSC; DRS not associated with FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FeNO, or IGE among the SCD group;
Vendramini et al. (2006) [37] MCT in 26 adults with and 28 controls without SCD 18–41 years PC20 < 16 mg/ml in 31 % of SCD, 7 % of controls Positive methacholine challenge not associated with having a baseline obstructive pattern on spirometry
Sen et al. (2009) [38] MCT in 31 adults with SCD 18–44 years 48 % with PC20 < 16 mg/ml, 42 % with PC20 < 4 mg/ml Significant association between the number of retrospective ACS events and having a positive methacholine challenge
  1. Abbreviations: ACS acute chest syndrome, BDR bronchodilator responsiveness, DRS dose response slope, MCT methacholine challenge test, PC 20 provocative concentration dose associated with a 20 % drop in FEV1; SCD sickle cell disease, STR skin test reactivity