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Table 1 Techniques available for the assessment of small airways disease in comparison to large airway

From: Small airway dysfunction and bronchial asthma control : the state of the art

Method Small airway function Large airway function
Spirometry FEF25–75 %, FVC, FVC/SVC FEV1, FEV1/FVC
Impulse oscillometry (IOS) R5–R20, X5, AX, Fres R20
Single Breath Nitrogen Washout (SBNW) or Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout (MBNW) test Slope phase III, CV, CC, Sacin, Scond  
Body plethysmography RV, RV/TLC  
High Resolution Computerized Tomography (HRCT)Nuclear medicine (Scintigrapy,SPECT,PET)3He-MRI Air trapping, airway wall thicknessRegional ventilation defectsNonventilated lung volume Airway wall thickness
Bronchoscopy Transbronchial biopsy, BAL Endobronchial biopsy
Sputum induction Late phase sputum Early phase sputum
Exhaled nitrix oxide (eNO) Alveolar eNO Bronchial eNO
CT & computational fluid dynamics Changes in airway volume and resistence