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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of laryngeal movement disorders [17, 24]

From: Vocal cord dysfunction: a review

 Psychogenic Somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, abuse, anxiety disorder, depression, Munchausen syndrome, malingering
 Exercise Exercise
 Irritant Extrinsic (chemical irritants, olfactory stimuli)
Intrinsic (GERD, laryngopharyngeal reflux rhinitis/post nasal drip, sinusitis)
Laryngospasm Intubation, airway manipulation, IgE mediated, nocturnal aspiration
Vocal cord paresis/paralysis Prolonged intubation, recurrent laryngeal or vagus nerve damage during chest or thyroid surgery, idiopathic
Infectious Epiglottis, bronchiolitis, laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), laryngitis, pharyngeal abscess, diphtheria, pertussis, laryngeal papillomatosis
Rheumatologic Rheumatoid cricoarytenoid arthritis, relapsing polychondritis, laryngeal sarcoidosis
Neoplastic Head and neck malignancy, cystic hygroma, hemangioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, teratoma, lymphoma, papilloma
Endocrine Thyroid goiter
Traumatic Laryngeal injury or fracture, thermal injury, upper airway hemorrhage, caustic ingestion
Allergic Angioedema, anaphylaxis, exercised induced anaphylaxis
Neurologic Brainstem stem compression, upper motor neuron injury, lower motor neuron injury, tic disorders, multiple sclerosis, postpolio syndrome, multiple system atrophy, myasthenia gravis, Parkinson disease, respiratory spasmodic dysphonia, traction on the recurrent laryngeal nerve, adductor laryngeal breathing dystonia
Pulmonary Asthma, exercise induced bronchoconstriction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, foreign body aspiration, hyperventilation syndrome, pulmonary embolus
Congenital Laryngomalacia, laryngeal cleft, intrathoracic vascular ring, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal web
Occupational Inhalation injury